Cardiac biomarkers were used to predict the likelihood of cardiovascular events at day 1 and day 30 in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, in a recently conducted study.

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These biomarkers were also used to predict late cardiovascular events at day 30 of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in patients who did not have a history of cardiovascular disease, according to Rosario Menéndez, MD, from the Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe and Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Fe in Valencia, Spain, and colleagues.

“Some patients have still high levels of inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers at 30 days, when they are usually referred to primary care without receiving any specific additional recommendations,” Dr. Menéndez and colleagues wrote in CHEST. “Our results suggest that a change in usual practice is needed to reduce current and further cardiovascular CAP complications.”

Dr. Menéndez and colleagues prospectively followed 730 patients for 1 year who were hospitalized for CAP, measuring the cardiac biomarkers proadrenomedullin (proADM), pro b-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP), proendothelin-1, and troponin T, and the inflammatory biomarkers interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin (PCT). The researchers also collected data on age, gender, smoking status, and vaccination history, as well as whether patients had any cardiac, renal, pulmonary, neurological or diabetes-related comorbidities.

Overall, 95 patients experienced early cardiovascular events, 67 patients had long-term cardiovascular events, and 20 patients experienced both early and late events. In hospital, the mortality rate was 4.7%; the 30-day mortality rate was 5.3%, and the 1-year mortality rate was 9.9%.

With regard to biomarkers, patients who experienced both early and late cardiovascular events had significantly higher initial levels of proADM, proendothelin-1, troponin, proBNP, and IL-6. Patients who experienced later events had consistent levels of these biomarkers until day 30, except for a decrease at day 4 or day 5.

After adjustment for age, sepsis, previous cardiac disease, and a partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli to fractional inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) of less than 250mm Hg, cardiac biomarkers proendothelin-1 (odds ratio, 2.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-3.79), proADM (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.53-4.20), proBNP (OR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.59-4.49), and troponin T (OR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.62-4.49) significantly predicted early cardiovascular events, while proendothelin-1 (OR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.41-7.80), proADM (2.29; 95% CI, 1.01-5.19) and proBNP (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.01-5.56) significantly predicted late cardiovascular events. For day 30 results, when researchers added IL-6 levels to proendothelin-1, the odds ratio for late events increased to 3.53, and when they added IL-6 levels to proADM, the odds ratio increased to 2.80.

Researchers noted the limitations of the study included that they did not analyze cardiac biomarkers to predict specific cardiovascular events, did not identify the cause for mortality at 1 year in most patients, and did not include a control group.

This study was supported in part by funding from Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sociedad Española de Neumología y Cirugía Torácica, and the Center for Biomedical Research Network in Respiratory Diseases. The authors reported no relevant conflicts of interest.

SOURCE: Menéndez R et al. Chest. 2019 Aug 2. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2019.06.040.