LAS VEGAS – Mayo Clinic gastroenterologist Joseph A. Murray, MD, has a message for rheumatologists: You might think you know celiac disease, which often mimics rheumatic disorders, but there’s a good chance you don’t.
For one, researchers have discovered only in the past few years that many people with celiac disease (CD) don’t spend their days on the toilet. “It’s really come into the fore in the past 5 years that it can present totally without any GI symptoms,” Dr. Murray said in an interview following his presentation at the annual Perspectives in Rheumatic Diseases held by Global Academy for Medical Education.
For another, he said, CD “is much more common than we thought,” affecting 1% of whites.
This is all relevant to rheumatologists, Dr. Murray said, because celiac disease can cause rheumatic symptoms and is more likely to affect patients with certain rheumatic conditions.
In the big picture, he said during his presentation, researchers now understand that most people with CD do not suffer from diarrhea, the classic symptom associated with the disorder. A 2014 Italian study of 770 patients with CD found that just one-third had diarrhea ().
Instead of GI symptoms – or in addition to them – CD can cause numerous symptoms that may land patients in a rheumatologist’s office. According to Dr. Murray, these include joint pain (often without joint destruction), peripheral neuropathy, general aches and pains, and chronic fatigue.
“You could have a patient presenting with nondestructive joint problems and general fatigue who has celiac disease as a cause,” he said.
Or patients could have both CD and a rheumatic condition. Patients with lupus and Sjögren’s syndrome, for example, are at higher risk of CD, Dr. Murray said.
In addition, he said, “I will often see overlap between celiac disease and rheumatic arthritis.”
What should you do if you suspect a patient has CD? Dr. Murray suggests referring the patient to a gastroenterologist, although he cautioned physicians to keep in mind that a patient with the condition may not be able to adequately absorb oral medications.
He said it’s crucial to not direct the patient to begin a gluten-free diet. The main way to test a patient for CD is through serology prior to a gluten-free diet, he said.
There’s another hitch regarding a gluten-free diet. As he explained in his presentation, it’s often difficult to convince someone who’s already gone on a gluten-free diet to go off it so they can be challenged with gluten for weeks. In these cases, he said, patients may be afraid of the return of symptoms.
As for treatment, Dr. Murray said “patients can be dramatically improved by a gluten-free diet,” although it’s often difficult for them to tolerate. “Often they’re unhappy,” he said in his presentation. “It’s not an easy diet.”
He noted that patients may go gluten free even if it’s not clear they have to. “If the diet is nutritionally adequate,” he said, “I don’t argue with success.”
Dr. Murray disclosed consulting for various drug makers, receiving royalties from Torax, and receiving grant/contracted research support from drug makers, the Broad Medical Research Program at Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation, and Oberkotter Foundation.
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