If the answer to the first question is “yes” and the patient has had at least two boils in intertriginous areas, that person likely has HS, a disease of apocrine gland–bearing skin that occurs in 1%-4% of people, has a higher prevalence in Blacks, compared with Whites, and affects more women than men by a 3:1 ratio.
“Current treatments offer limited efficacy, and the disease is chronic and recurrent,” Dr. Hamzavi, of the department of dermatology at Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, said during MedscapeLive’s annual Las Vegas Dermatology Seminar. “You often see nodules, abscesses, fistulae, and scarring,” with all different skin types represented in the majority of patients.
Typical HS lesions appear as inflamed nodules, abscesses, draining fistulas, and scars as well as double-headed “tombstone” comedones, he said. These are typically located in the axilla, intermammary folds, in the groin, around the genitals, and on the buttocks. Atypical lesions can also occur – often folliculitis and open comedones in locations such as the waistline, the neck, and behind the ears.
The differential diagnosis is wide-ranging and includes bacterial abscess, inflamed cyst, folliculitis, pilonidal sinus, cellulitis, and cutaneous Crohn’s disease. Pain may appear out of proportion to the physical examination.
“There is a window of opportunity to treat HS, early in the disease process,” Dr. Hamzavi said. “There are no definitive cures for HS but lots of treatment options.”
According to clinical managementpublished by the United States and Canadian Hidradenitis Suppurativa Foundations, options for moderate stage disease include antibiotics, antiandrogens, retinoids, immunosuppression/biologics, deroofing, and limited excision with primary closure Options for severe disease include radical excision.
“HS requires a mix of medical and procedural treatments based on the number of nodules,” Dr. Hamzavi said. “Because the disease has so many different phases, there is no perfect outcome measure yet, but progress is being made.”
In 2018, an effort to develop a consensus core outcome set of domains regarding what to measure in clinical trials of HS was launched; it is known as the Hidradenitis Suppurativa Core Outcomes Set International Collaboration (). It was between the International Dermatology Outcome Measures ( ) initiative, the Cochrane Skin Group – Core Outcome Set Initiative ( ), and Zealand University Hospital, Roskilde.
HISTORIC is now part of the partnership with CSG-COUSIN and this work continues onward. Core domains as defined by the group include pain, physical signs, HS-specific quality of life, global assessment, and disease progression. “For now, we are mostly using some objective measures and some patient-reported outcomes with the addition of ultrasound in some centers,” Dr. Hamzavi said.
He underscored the importance of lifestyle modifications in patients with HS, including smoking cessation and weight loss, as well as decreasing pressure/friction on lesions, using warm compresses, and modifying diet. “This generally involves a low-inflammatory diet: Low carbohydrate, low dairy, and higher protein content, but there is much work needed to understand the role of diet in HS,” he said.
“This is a tough disease, but the compassion you offer these patients will be paid back to you a thousandfold. They tend to be some of the happiest and most appreciative patients you will ever have in your practice.”
Dr. Hamzavi disclosed that he has been a clinical investigator for Clinuvel, Incyte, Pfizer, Avita, and Ferndale Labs. He has also been a consultant for Pfizer, AbbVie, Novartis, and Aclaris, and has received a grant from Estee Lauder.
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